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Foreign publications

Catalogue:  2. Testing and counseling 

1. Opening up the HIV epidemic: Guidance on encouraging beneficial disclosure, ethical partner counselling, and appropriate use of HIV case reporting 
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Information: Faced with the increasingly devastating impact of HIV/AIDS on individual and community well-being, and on development, life expectancy and childhood mortality, many governments have been reviewing the nature of their response to HIV/AIDS. Some have raised the issue of whether the principles of confidentiality and informed consent have hindered efforts to prevent the onward transmission of HIV. Particular concern has been expressed regarding the vulnerability of women to infection by husbands or partners who do not know their status, or refuse to reveal it or refuse to practise safe sex. This has led to calls to adopt policies such as named HIV casereporting, mandatory disclosure of status and criminalizing the deliberate transmission of HIV.
Recent international consultations on these matters have confirmed that the principles of confidentiality and informed consent are not obstacles to effective prevention and care programmes. In fact, if employed appropriately, they are not only valid ethical principles, but are also pragmatic tools by which to best protect both the non-infected and the infected. Rather it is HIV-related denial, stigma and discrimination, and the secrecy that results from these, that compose major impediments to an effective response to HIV/AIDS.  
Year of publishing: 2000 
Language of document: russian  Page: 51 
Journal or place of publishing: UNAIDS, Geneva  Internet - reference:  
2. Voluntary couselling and testing (VCT) 
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Information: HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) has been shown to have a role in both HIV prevention and, for people with HIV infection, as an entry point to care. VCT provides people with an opportunity to learn and accept their HIV serostatus in a confidential environment with counselling and referral for ongoing emotional support and medical care. People who have been tested seropositive can benefit from earlier appropriate medical care and interventions to treat and/or prevent HIV-associated illnesses. Pregnant women who are aware of their seropositive status can prevent transmission to their infants. Knowledge of HIV serostatus can also help people to make decisions to protect themselves and their sexual partners from infection. A recent study has indicated that VCT may be a relatively cost-effective intervention in preventing HIV transmission.   Year of publishing: 2000 
Language of document: russian  Page: 16 
Journal or place of publishing: UNAIDS, Geneva  Internet - reference: